Is Evolution Compatible
with the Bible?
Many people, although they
may not know the term, are theistic evolutionists ; that is, they
believe God used evolution to create the universe and everything in it.
For some, this appears to be an acceptable compromise—belief in evolution
and belief in God. The first provides scientific respectability, while
the second provides eternal hope and satisfies an inward conviction that
there must be a Creator. For these people, evolution is compatible with
But is it? Since Darwin's
time (mid-late 1800s), many who know what the Bible says, have tried to
reinterpret the Bible to make it compatible with the theory of evolution.
The fact that there are so many theistic evolution theories indicates the
general dissatisfaction with each. It also suggests that reconciling evolution
with the Bible is not as easy and straightforward as some claim. You will
soon see why.
The better-known efforts
to reinterpret the early chapters of Genesis include the day-age theory,
the gap theory, and progressive creation. Each theory begins with the uncritical
acceptance of various aspects of evolution and then reinterprets Genesis
to force it to accommodate evolution. Most of these reinterpretations of
Genesis contradict other parts of scripture. They also contradict interpretations
of the text made by ancient and modern Hebrew scholars, the clear statements
of many Old Testament writers, all New Testament writers, and Jesus Christ
Many who accept these theories
sincerely reject evolution. Unfortunately, they fail to realize the evolutionary
assumptions on which these theories, and their beliefs, are built. Those
assumptions may appear "scientific" to them, unless they closely examine
No single theistic evolution
theory incorporates all 73 beliefs listed below. However, each belief is
compatible with one or more of the primary theistic evolution theories.
Actually, there is no compelling scientific evidence for any of these evolutionary
beliefs. In fact, much scientific evidence refutes them. (See The Scientific
Case for Creation.)
Notice how many ideas in
the left-hand column below are uncritically accepted by mainstream society.
Notice also how these ideas have subtly alienated many from the Bible—which
both contradicts theistic evolution and lays the foundation for some of
our most basic beliefs and institutions. Undermining this foundation has
obviously contributed to many societal problems.
||The Biblical Account
is either allegory, poetry, or myth. It is not literally true.
is accurate history involving real people and major events. Every New Testament
writer and Jesus Christ cited these foundational events shaping human culture.
|Genesis contains two conflicting
creation accounts, Genesis 1:1-2:3 and Genesis 2:4-2:25.
Obviously, both cannot be taken literally.
||Genesis contains two descriptions
of the Creation. The first is chronological, while the second is from man's
perspective. A close study of the Hebrew words shows no conflict. Even
Christ, who in a single sentence mentioned both descriptions, knew that
they referred to the same creation event. (Mt 19:4-5)
|Natural processes (or "Mother
Nature") can explain the formation of the heavenly bodies, the earth, and
life. Matter preceded mind.
||The Creator, using supernatural
events, brought forth the heavenly bodies, the earth, and life. Mind preceded
matter. (Gen 1-2)
|Space, time, and matter
are eternal. Time existed before things were created.
||God, who is eternal, created
space, time, and matter. The Creation came out of nothing. There was a
beginning. 2 Time began at the Creation. (Gen 1:1, Mt 24:21,
Mk 13:19, Jn 1:1, Col 1:16, Heb 11:3)
|The universe, as we know
it, began as a burst of light with the big bang.
||Light came forth after the
heavens and earth were created. (Gen 1:1-3)
|The big bang was the basic
creation event. It occurred during a fraction of a second.
||A series of creative acts
occurred during the creation week. (Gen 1)
|Since the big bang, the
average temperature of the expanding universe has continually decreased.
Eventually, the sun will exhaust its fuel and the earth will lose its heat
and freeze solid.
||The earth began in a relatively
cool state (see #12 below). Eventually, intense heat will destroy the heavens,
and the earth. (II Peter 3: 7,10)
|The earth slowly formed
in the presence of sunlight.
||On the first day, the earth
was formed in darkness. (Gen 1:2) Soon afterwards, but before
the sun and stars were made, light was created. (Gen 1:3)
|Hydrogen, helium, and some
lithium formed millions of years before all the other 100+ chemical elements.
||All chemical elements came
into existence during the creation week. (Gen 2:2, Ex 20:11)
|The sun and most stars formed
billions of years before the earth. Stars are still forming.
||The earth was created three
days before the sun and stars. Today, stars are dying, not being created.
(Gen 1:2, 1:16; Ex 20:11)
|During the fourth creation
period, the sun, moon, and stars were "made to appear" 3 on a previously
||On the fourth creation day,
the sun, moon, and stars were made. (Gen 1:14-19)
|The earth initially had
a hot, molten surface. Millions of years later, water--chemically locked
in the earth's interior--oozed out.
||On the first day, the earth
had a liquid water surface. Therefore, the earth was relatively cool at
the beginning. (Gen 1:2)
|The earth slowly coalesced
from meteoritic impacts that melted the earth's surface and vaporized all
||The earth formed quickly.
After the second day, its surface was spread out above the liquid subterranean
waters. (Ps 136:6)
|Land formed before the oceans.
||A global ocean existed before
land. Dry land appeared when the surface waters were gathered into one
place. (Gen 1:2, 1:9)
|Evolution took place over
billions of years.
||Creation took place in six
literal days. (Gen 1, Ex 20:11)
|The present is the key to
the past; that is, presently observable natural processes explain all past
events. (This principle, called uniformitarianism, underlies much of geology.)
||The present is not always
the key to the past. God sometimes works suddenly, as He did during the
Creation, the fall, the flood, and the dispersion at Babel. (Gen
1-3, 6-8, 11) No natural process on the earth approaches the flood
in its extent, power, destruction, and duration. 4 (II Peter
|Once the atmosphere began
to evolve, rains occurred on the earth.
||Before the flood, man apparently
had not seen a rainbow in the sky. (Gen 9:11-17) The hydrodynamic
cycle must have been quite different. Perhaps there was no rain before
the flood. 5
|There have been no worldwide
catastrophes. There have been brief, local floods.
||A catastrophic, worldwide
flood covered all the earth's preflood mountains after 150 days. (Gen
7:19-20, 7:24; Ps 104:6-9) This year-long flood (Gen 7:11,
8:14) destroyed practically all humans and air-breathing land animals.
6:13, 6:17, 7:4, 7:21-23, 8:21, 9:11; Lk 17:27; I Pet 3:20; II Pet 2:5,
|The first animals were microscopic,
||The first animals included
great sea monsters, such as whales, and other complex creatures. (Gen
|The first sea life was a
small blob of complex chemicals. It took a billion years for other sea
life to form.
||On the fifth day, sea life
was created, and the waters swarmed with all the various kinds of sea creatures.
|The original atmosphere
consisted of methane, ammonia, and other poisonous gases. Over billions
of years, the atmosphere became what it is today.
||The atmosphere was created
quickly and has since supported all living things. (Gen 1:6-8)
|Plant life helped produce
||The atmosphere was created
before plant life. (Gen 1:6-12)
|Plants evolved over a long
period of time. Flowering plants evolved 220 million years after all other
||All major categories of
plants, including their seeds and fruit, were created on the third day.
|The sun evolved several
billion years before plant life.
||The sun was made one day
after plant life. (Gen 1:12-16)
|The six creation "days"
were really six ages. As Genesis 1 states, plants appeared
one "day" (age) before the sun, two "days" (ages) before animals, and three
"days" (ages) before insects. After each creation age, there were millions
of evenings and mornings.
||To survive, plants need
the sun and animals--especially insects. They were all created within three
days of each other. (Gen 1:11-23) Had it taken much longer,
plants could not have survived.6 After each creation day, there was an
evening and a morning. (Gen 1:5, 8, 13, 19, 23, 31)
|Various forms of plant life
and animal life evolved during each of four sequential, geological eras:
Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic. These eras were of unequal
||Life was created during
only three of the six creation days--3rd day: plant life, 5th day: sea
life and birds, and the 6th day: other land animals and man. (Gen
|New forms of life have continued
to arise within each of the major categories: plants, sea creatures, birds,
and land animals.
||All plants were created
first, then all sea creatures and birds, then all land animals. Finally,
man was created. (Gen 1)
|There is continuity among
all forms of life. All organisms have a common ancestor. Therefore, there
continuous transitions among all plants and among all animals. The millions
of species are not fixed and not distinct.
||There are permanent discontinuities
between the many different "kinds" of life. In fact, the Bible states ten
times that each "kind" will reproduce after itself. (Gen 1)
The kinds are fixed and distinct.
|Sea life preceded land life
by hundreds of millions of years.
||Sea life did not precede
land life. (Gen 1:11-13, 1:20-23)
|Many animals and plants
became extinct before man evolved.
||All animal and plant kinds
have lived contemporaneously with man. Adam named all the different kinds
of cattle, birds, and beasts of the field. (Gen 1:20-30, 2:20)
|Insects evolved millions
of years before birds and flowering plants.
||Birds and all plants were
created before "creeping things." (Gen 1:20-24)
|Either reptiles or dinosaurs
evolved into birds. More than a hundred million years later, sixty million
years after the dinosaurs became extinct, man evolved.
||Birds were created before
dinosaurs, reptiles, and other beasts of the earth. (Gen 1:20-25)
Man saw and wrote about dinosaurs and giant seagoing reptiles. (Job
40:15 - 41:34)
|Fish evolved hundreds of
millions of years before birds and fruit trees. The first fish and birds
came from eggs.
||Fruit trees were created
before fish. Fish and birds were created on the same day. Fish were created
swimming and birds were created flying. (Gen 1:11, 21-22)
|It is uncertain which came
first, the chicken or the egg.
||The chicken preceded the
laying of the first egg. In fact, all animals were created fully formed
|The first animals were simple
sea creatures. Much later, fish evolved, then amphibians, and finally mammals.
The last mammals to evolve included whales.
||The first animals created
included highly developed mammals such as the great whales. Days later,
many so-called "lower forms" were created. (Gen 1:21, 1:24)
|For hundreds of millions
of years before man evolved, many animals were carnivores (meat eaters).
||Early animals were herbivores
(plant eaters). After either the fall or the flood, some became carnivores.
|Females evolved before males.
||Males and females within
a "kind" were created on the same day. (Gen 1:20-25)
|Creation is a process. Macroevolution
||Creation was a distinct
event. (Ps 148:5) God finished "all His work" in six days.
(Gen 2:1-3; Ex 20:11, 31:17; Heb 4:1-11)
|Everything in nature, from
protons to people, evolved by slow, continuous processes.
||Everything in nature was
created in one or more rapid, discrete steps. (Ps 33:6-9)
Five times Genesis states that "God said . . . and it was so." (Gen
1:6-7, 1:9, 1:11, 1:14-15, 1:24) All the Bible's miracles occurred
quickly, including the biggest and first miracle--Creation itself.
|Evolution works, in part,
through a process called "survival of the fittest." Violence, pain, and
death were necessary for animals to become more complex. Suffering, cruelty,
and death are natural results of the evolutionary process. In this sense,
death produced man.
||God is all-powerful and
does not need to use violence, pain, or death to create. God did not author
evil, suffering, or disease. Several attributes of our Creator are love,
peace, and joy. Right after the Creation, everything was "very good." (Gen
1:31) Suffering and cruelty entered the world when Adam sinned.
(Gen 3) In this sense, man produced death. (Gen 2:17,
|Man is a product of nature.
Man is controlled and shaped by his environment. In fact, the environment
determined to a large extent how man evolved.
||Man was given dominion over
nature. God told man to control his environment--to subdue the earth and
rule over every living thing that moves on the earth. (Gen 1:26,
|There really was no one
individual we can call "Adam"; the term refers to "mankind" or a race of
primitive men. Adam and Eve may be mythical characters in a saga explaining
how evil originated--or in a timeless myth representing the sinful choices
we all make.
||Inspired writers of both
Testaments spoke of Adam as an individual, not as a race of people. (Gen
5:3; I Chron 1:1; Lk 3:38; Acts 17:26; Rom 5:12; I Cor 15:21-22, 15:45-47)
Eve was also a unique person. (I Cor 11:8-9, I Tim 2:13-14)
We are all descended from Adam and Eve. (Gen 3:20)
|Man is an animal that has
evolved a little higher than the apes.
||Man, who was given dominion
over all animals, was created in the image of God. (Gen 1:26-27,
1:30, 5:1) Man was made "a little lower than the angels." (Ps
|Man has existed only during
the past 1/1000th of the earth's history--10,000,000,000 years after the
universe began and 4,000,000,000 years after the earth formed.
||Man has existed since the
Creation. (Mt 19:4; Mk 10:6, 13:19; Lk 11:50; Jn 8:44; Rom 1:20)
|Man evolved from a lower
||Adam was formed from the
dust. (Gen 2:7)
|Almost all fossils, including
those of dinosaurs, were formed before man appeared on earth.
||Man was created before any
fossils formed, including those of dinosaurs.
|Man's genealogy includes
many apelike animals. It spans over a hundred thousand generations.
||Man's genealogy begins with
Adam and Eve. It involves only several hundred generations. The Bible gives
the line of descent from Adam to Noah and even up to historical times.
(Gen 5, I Chron 1, Lk 3:23-38)
|Apes, man's closest relatives,
have no difficulty or pain in childbirth. For some unknown reason, human
childbirth is painful and dangerous for mother and child. Natural selection
should have eliminated women with narrow birth canals. 7
||Pain in childbirth was multiplied
as a result of the Fall. (Gen 3:16)
|God breathed a spirit into
an apelike creature. This became man.
||God breathed the breath
of life into a lifeless human body. This became man. (Gen 2:7)
|The earliest people were
meat eaters. The first animals that could be considered human were hunters.
Hundreds of thousands of years later, man began farming.
||The earliest people were
vegetarians. (Gen 1:29) The first man, Adam, was a gardener.
(Gen 2:15) Later, Adam became a farmer, while his son Abel
was a herdsman. (Gen 4:2) Less than ten generations later,
man began hunting. (Gen 9:3)
|Since man evolved from the
animals, there is very little difference in the psychological makeup and
behavior of animals and man. (This premise underlies much of modern psychology.)
||Man was created distinct
from the animals and in the image of God. (Gen 1:26-27, 5:1)
Adam did not find any animal that was physically and emotionally compatible
with him. Only another human, Eve, could be his counterpart. (Gen
|The first human male came
from a female. Woman, like man, evolved from animals. The story of Eve
being formed by "divine surgery" from Adam's side is nonsense. Eve had
||The first human female came
from a male. (Acts 17:26, I Cor 11:8) Eve was specially created--taken
from the side of Adam. (Gen 2:21-23) Eve had no mother.
|Marriage, a cultural convention,
evolved from human experience. Marriage therefore changes as culture evolves.
||Marriage is a permanent
bond instituted by God. (Gen 2:24)
|Man slowly developed our
basic units of time: a day, a week, a month, and a year.
||Genesis 1, which was not
composed by man, defines our basic units of time.
|No one established the seven-day
week. It was culturally derived. Surprisingly, practically all known cultures
throughout history have had a seven-day week.
||God established the seven-day
week for man's benefit. (Mk 2:27) It reminds us of His activity
and rest during the creation week. (Gen 1, Ex 20:8-11)
|The Garden of Eden is a
||Eden was a literal place.
(Is 51:3; Ezek 28:13, 36:35; Joel 2:3)
|People have rarely lived
beyond 100 years, especially in the primitive past.
||Before the flood, conditions
were such that at least the people listed in chapter 5 of Genesis lived
to be about 900 years old.
|Lunar months may have been
mistakenly called "years" by the early Hebrews. Thus, the patriarchal ages
(typically 900 "years") in Genesis 5 could be much younger in true years.
||Two patriarchs in Genesis
5 were 65 years old when their sons in the patriarchal line were born.
(Gen 5:15, 5:21) If those "years" were lunar months, then
they had children when they were five years old!
|Early man was quite primitive
and technologically immature.
||Within only a few hundred
years after the Creation, man built musical instruments and refined alloys.
(Gen 4:21-22) Early man also had the technology to build
Noah's Ark (Gen 6:14-16) and the Tower of Babel. (Gen
|Language evolved slowly;
it began with grunts and signs of emotion.
||Adam, who was created with
a large vocabulary, conducted intelligent conversations from the beginning.
He named many, but not all, land animals on the day he was created. (Gen
2:18-24) Languages multiplied suddenly at Babel. 8 (Gen
|The genealogies listed from
Adam to Joseph contain many gaps. Each gap may span centuries.
||The genealogies from Adam
to Joseph are tightly linked, since each patriarch's age is given when
the next named patriarch was born. 9 Therefore, more time cannot
be inserted between patriarchs.
|Cain, Adam and Eve's first
son, was banished to a distant land and would not have had a wife, unless
he married a subhuman primate or another evolved human.
||Adam and Eve had many sons
and daughters. (Gen 5:4) Cain probably married a sister,
although it is theoretically possible that he married a niece. 10
|For a billion years, millions
of species have slowly improved and become more complex. This is still
happening. New forms of life are always evolving.
||Right after the Creation,
God saw all that He had made, and it was "very good." (Gen 1:31)
Since then, things have deteriorated (Gen 3:16-19, Rom 8:18-22)
and diversified. We have never seen a new kind of life evolve.
|Death entered the world
just after the simplest form of life evolved--a billion years before man
||Death entered the world
after Adam was created and sinned. (Rom 5:12)
|Death preceded the activities
that some people call sin. 11
||Sin preceded death. (Gen
2:17, 3:1-24; Rom 5:12, 6:23)
|The "Fall of Adam" had only
||The Fall of Adam had both
spiritual and physical consequences. (Gen 2:17, 3:14-24; Rom 8:18-22;
I Cor 15:21-22)
|Ever since plants evolved,
some have been poisonous. This enhanced their survivability.
||Before the Fall, every green
plant was edible. (Gen 1:29-30)
|Thorns and thistles evolved
along with plants. Pain in childbirth is as old as mankind.
||Adam's sin caused thorns,
thistles, and pain in childbirth. (Gen 3:16-18)
|Man's wickedness is a result
of his animal nature.
||Man's wickedness is a result
of his fallen nature.
|God gave Adam a spirit.
Since Adam was the first primate who could be called human, he had to die.
Death was not a penalty for disobedience.
||The First Adam and Last
Adam (Jesus Christ) had miraculous bodies, but both could die as a penalty
for human disobedience. (Rom 5:14-15, I Cor 15:45) If Adam's
body evolved from an animal, this profound theological correspondence is
broken, along with the "plan of redemption." 12
|Struggle and death preceded
man's arrival on earth. This struggle has continued ever since. Those earlier
conditions cannot be restored.
||The completed Creation,
which included man, was "very good." (Gen 1:31) There was
no struggle and death. Subsequently, man (by his own free will) fell from
this universal paradise, causing struggle and death to enter the world.
Someday, this paradise will be restored as a "new heaven and a new earth."
(Is 11:6-9, Rev 22:2-3)
|Man is continually improving--physically,
mentally, socially, morally, and spiritually.
||Since early times, man has
advanced technologically. (Gen 4:21-22, 11:6) This was largely
inevitable. (Gen 11:6) However, man has regressed physically,
morally, and spiritually. (Gen 3, 5, 11)
|Since man culminates billions
of years of upward progress, his well-being and continued improvement must
be our greatest concern. 13
||Since God created man (and
everything else), God should be our greatest concern. Man, who was made
in the image of God, was given dominion over all other creatures. (Gen
1:26) Man must exercise great care and concern for the creation,
especially for his fellow man. However, man is a fallen, or sinful, creature
who needs a Savior. (Jn 3:16)
Having examined the many
contradictions between theistic evolution and the Biblical view of life
and history, one should consider the following question:
If God is not limited in
power and could have created the world, if He has given man a record of
what He did, and if the scientific evidence does not contradict it, then
what prevents you from believing that it actually happened? 14 If
evolution happened, then death was widespread before man evolved. But if
death preceded man and was not a result of Adam's sin, then sin is a
fiction. If sin is a fiction, then we have no need for a Savior.
References and Notes
This format and approximately
one-fifth of the ideas are drawn from an article by Richard Niessen in
The Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol. 16, March 1980, pp. 220-221.
If each effect had a cause
that also had a cause, an infinite chain of events would stretch back in
time—with no beginning. Philosophically, one must accept either (1) this
infinite regression or (2) an infinite God. Scientifically, one can conclude
that there was a beginning; that is, no infinite regression. Biblically,
one only needs to read and believe the first three words of the Bible (the
title of this book)—a far simpler exercise.
Those holding this widespread
belief never explain to whom the sun appeared. Humans, according to these
theistic evolutionists, arrived several billion years later. Claiming that
the word "made" in Genesis 1:16 really means "made to appear"
is a deceptive play on words.
Some advocates of the day-age
theory say that the light of Genesis 1:3 sustained plants until the sun
appeared an age later. While sunlight produces photosynthesis, light in
general does not. For example, light from an ordinary light bulb will not
grow a potted plant shielded from all sunlight. Special light bulbs, designed
to grow plants, must closely match the sun's spectrum across all colors
and into the infrared and ultraviolet wavelengths. Some plants, such as
tomatoes and strawberries, have difficulty growing under such bulbs. For
most plants the light must have a day-night cycle. Some plants even need
light with annual cycles. These cycles cause the plant to change from one
stage of growth to another, such as budding to blooming. If the light source's
distance from the plant varies too much, the changing light intensity will
harm the plant. The most obvious way for a light source to satisfy these
plant requirements is for it to correspond to the sun's location, brightness,
and spectrum—in other words, for the light to be the sun.
No one is certain what the
light of Genesis 1:3 was, what its characteristics were,
or where it originated. Therefore, it is not clear that it could have sustained
all plant life and kept the earth at just the right daily and seasonal
temperatures for three ages until the sun "took over." Did the light of
Genesis 1:3 just "switch off" when the sun was made during "the fourth
age"? Remember, the "six ages" to most theistic evolutionists lasted 4,600,000,000
Even if the absence of sunlight
for "an age" were not a problem for the day-age theory, the absence of
animals for two "ages" is a fatal problem. Animals produce the carbon dioxide
plants require, and insects are important for reproductive fertilization,
especially for flowering plants. Obviously, insects, other animals, and
probably the sun must have existed within days or weeks of the first plants.
Many theistic evolutionists fail to understand this simple fact.
Joshua Fischman, "Putting
a New Spin on the Birth of Human Birth," Science , Vol. 264,
20 May 1994, pp. 1082-1083.
Was it improper for brothers
and sisters to marry? In many countries today, close intermarriages are
discouraged or prohibited by law, because they often produce genetic defects
in children. For example, children whose parents are first cousins have
a 4.4% greater chance of dying before age ten. This figure includes late
miscarriages, six months or more after conception. (See Kevin Davies, "Cost
of Consanguinity," Nature , Vol. 371, 13 October 1994, p. 630.)
Damaged genes, which are
usually caused by radiation and other adverse environmental factors, have
steadily accumulated in humans since the time of Adam and Eve. Most defective
genes are not immediately harmful, because each person usually has a good
corresponding gene from the other parent. However, if the parents are closely
related, they have a much greater chance of having both inherited the same
bad gene from their common ancestor. If their child then receives this
defective gene, physical abnormalities usually result.
Since damaged genes accumulate
with time, Adam and Eve's children and grandchildren probably had very
few genetic defects. (Gen 1:31) Therefore, close intermarriages
would not have had the medical consequences they have today. The biblical
prohibition forbidding incest was introduced when Moses was inspired to
write Leviticus 18:6-18.
Many atheists understand
just how important this is better than many theists. G. Richard Bozarth,
writing in The American Atheist, stated:
Christianity has fought,
still fights, and will fight science to the desperate end over evolution,
because evolution destroys utterly and finally the very reason Jesus' earthly
life was supposedly made necessary. Destroy Adam and Eve and the original
sin, and in the rubble you will find the sorry remains of the son of god
[sic]. Take away the meaning of his death. If Jesus was not the redeemer
who died for our sins, and this is what evolution means, then Christianity
is nothing! G. Richard Bozarth, "The Meaning of Evolution," The American
Atheist, Vol. 20, No. 2, February 1978, p. 30.
For a fuller discussion of
this profound subject, see Arthur C. Custance, Two Men Called Adam (Brockville,
Ontario: Doorway Publications, 1983). At one point (p. 250), Custance summarized
the issue as follows:
The bond between . . . [Adam
and Christ] is entirely predicated on a miraculous origin in both cases:
the creation of the first man Adam, which was clearly a supernatural event;
and the virgin conception of the Last Adam, which was also clearly a supernatural
A body of animal origin acquired
by evolutionary processes is an entirely different thing from a body of
divine origin acquired by direct creation. As to the former, it is clear
that such a body must by nature be subject to death, the ancestral line
being through some primate channel where death is natural. As to the latter,
such a body becomes subject to death not by nature but only as a penalty.
The whole Plan of Redemption
hinges upon this difference because the Last Adam cannot by nature be subject
to death and still make a truly vicarious sacrifice of Himself. He would
merely be paying a debt to nature before the expected time.
This is the basic tenet of
Secular Humanism—a belief system that generally dominates our media and
tax-supported schools. Most subscribers to this atheistic philosophy are
unaware of its evolutionary roots, its definition, or its implications.
The U.S. Supreme Court declared that Secular Humanism is a religion. (Tercaso
vs. Watkins, 367 U.S. 488, 1961, note 11.)
Malcolm Bowden, The Rise
of the Evolution Fraud (San Diego: Creation-Life Publishers, 1982), p.